In haematology, histology and cytology, specialised analytical equipment, reagents and immunohaematological tests are used to examine blood samples, tissue samples and cellular specimens. A comprehensive understanding of these systems and their application enables accurate diagnosis and effective treatment of patients.
Haematology analysers are essential to obtain information about blood cells and their composition. They provide rapid and accurate determination of parameters such as haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, leukocyte count, platelet count and differential blood count. Modern analysers use advanced technologies such as flow cytometry and optical measurements to provide accurate results. These devices enable medical professionals to identify haematological disorders such as anaemia, leukaemia or thrombocytopenia and develop appropriate treatment plans.
For histological examinations, special reagents are used to fix, embed and stain tissue samples. Histological reagents, such as formalin for fixation and haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) for staining, are essential to visualise tissue structure and cell morphology. By using these reagents, pathologists can identify various tissue and cell changes, including tumours, inflammation and infection. This aids the diagnosis of disease and the planning of treatment strategies.
In cytology, cytological reagents are used to fix, stain and analyse cellular samples. These samples can be taken from body fluids such as blood, urine or lavage fluids. By using cytological reagents such as Papanicolaou stain or Giemsa stain, cytologists can identify cellular changes that may indicate cancer or other diseases. Cytological analysis allows early detection of cancer and monitoring of the course of treatment.
Immunohaematology tests, including blood grouping, are of great importance in transfusion medicine. These tests are performed to determine an individual's blood type and ensure that compatible blood products are used in a blood transfusion. Immunohaematology tests include the determination of blood groups A, B, AB or O, as well as rhesus factor (Rh). The use of specific antibodies can ensure adverse immune reactions during a blood transfusion.
Blood grouping is an important part of immunohaematology. It classifies blood into different groups such as A, B, AB and 0 and enables the identification of rhesus factors. This is crucial for blood transfusion compatibility as well as for determining parentage and forensic investigations.