Regenerative medicine: helps the body healing -- MEDICA - World Forum for Medicine

 Image: New technique

New laboratory technique 'prints' cells

20.03.2020

Take a neural stem cell in the brain: Whether this cell remains a stem cell or differentiates into a fully formed brain cell is ultimately determined by a complex set of molecular messages the cell receives from countless neighbors. Understanding these messages is key for scientists hoping to harness these stem cells to treat neurological conditions like Alzheimer's or Parkinson's.
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Medical products made of collagen - Biocompatible, elastic, stable

19.03.2020

Regenerative medicine often relies on implants and materials that support healing in our body. Collagen has a special significance here. It is compatible to the body and offers an excellent environment for the growing of new cells. In our video, we took a look on where collagen and collagen products for medicine come from.
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Image: Space Tango CubeLab on board the International Space Station ISS without gravity; Copyright: Space Tango

Producing human tissue in space

10.03.2020

On 6 March at 11:50 PM EST, the International Space Station resupply mission Space X CRS-20 took off from Cape Canaveral (USA). On board: 250 test tubes from the University of Zurich containing adult human stem cells. These stem cells will develop into bone, cartilage and other organs during the month-long stay in space.
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Image: Close-up of a tubular structure ; Copyright: Professor Alvaro Mata

3D printing of tissue-like vascular structures

06.03.2020

In a new study published today in Nature Communications, led by Professor Alvaro Mata at the University of Nottingham and Queen Mary University London, researchers have developed a way to 3D print graphene oxide with a protein which can organise into tubular structures that replicate some properties of vascular tissue.
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Image: Nanopore sequencer for DNA analysis; Copyright: Courtesy of Fraunhofer IGBI

DNA: sequencing technique shortens diagnosis of sepsis

05.03.2020

A report in the Journal of Molecular Diagnostics, published by Elsevier, describes a new technique that uses real-time next-generation sequencing (NGS) to analyze tiny amounts of microbial cell-free DNA in the plasma of patients with sepsis, offering the possibility of accurate diagnosis of sepsis-causing agents within a few hours of drawing blood.
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Image: two men standing behind medical technology; Copyright: Matthew Comstock

Better cancer treatments with 'Optical tweezers'

04.03.2020

Stem cells involved in replenishing human tissues and blood depend on an enzyme known as telomerase to continue working throughout our lives. When telomerase malfunctions, it can lead to both cancer and premature aging conditions. Roughly 90 percent of cancer cells require inappropriate telomerase activity to survive.
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Image: simulated bacterium propelling itself along using flagella pointing forwards and behind; Copyright: Sarah Mohammadinejed, University of Göttingen

Immunology: swimming bacteria

02.03.2020

The magnetotactic bacterium Magnetococcus marinus swims with the help of two bundles of flagella, which are thread-like structures. The bacterial cells also possess a sort of intracellular "compass needle", meaning that their movements can be controlled using a magnetic field.
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Image: Microglia express tight junction molecule; Copyright: Hiroaki Wake

Immune cells damage the integrity of the blood-brain barrier

02.03.2020

The blood-brain barrier is a layer of cells that covers the blood vessels in the brain and regulates the entry of molecules from the blood into the brain. Increases in blood-brain barrier "permeability," or the extent to which molecules leak through, are observed in several neurological and psychiatric disorders.
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Image: round image taken by the hybrid microscope with two different halfs; Copyright: Rohit Bhargava, University of Illinois

Hybrid microscope could bring digital biopsy to the clinic

18.02.2020

By adding infrared capability to the ubiquitous, standard optical microscope, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign hope to bring cancer diagnosis into the digital era.
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Image: immune cells counting each other; Copyright: Northwestern University

Immunology: cells consult each other to make decisions

14.02.2020

Scientists and physicians have long known that immune cells migrate to the site of an infection, which individuals experience as inflammation - swelling, redness and pain. Now, Northwestern University and University of Washington researchers have uncovered new evidence that this gathering is not just a consequence of immune activation.
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Image: mini-gut organoid generated in the lab; Copyright: UC San Diego Health Sciences

Gut-in-a-dish model to define gut leaks

11.02.2020

Leaky gut is most often experienced by older people, patients with cancers or other chronic ailments, and people with especially stressful lifestyles. Stressors break down the zipper-like junctions between the cells that form the gut lining. Microbes and molecules that subsequently leak out through these cell gaps can trigger an immune response, contributing to a variety of diseases.
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Image: Three young men sitting at a couch together; Copyright: Klaus Pichler/CeMM

Diagnostics: single-cell sequencing of leukemia therapy

05.02.2020

Researchers at the CeMM Research Center for Molecular Medicine of the Austrian Academy of Sciences and partners in Hungary have studied the response to targeted leukemia therapy in unprecedented detail, using single-cell sequencing and epigenetic analysis.
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Image: A man in an MRI with his head fixed, next to him two physicians who discuss the images; Copyright: panthermedia.net/Ancikainfot

Advanced imaging and genomic analysis could help treat brain cancer

04.02.2020

Melding the genetic and cellular analysis of tumors with how they appear in medical images could give physicians and other cancer therapy specialists new insights into how to best treat patients, especially those with brain cancer, according to a new study led by the Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen), an affiliate of City of Hope.
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Image: The shoulder of a man with a surgical suture; Copyright: panthermedia.net/JPCPROD

Regenerative medicine: helps the body healing

03.02.2020

Severe wounds heal slowly and leave scars. This is why we have been using regenerative therapies for some time now to accelerate and improve healing. They also help to avoid permanent damage. Still, complex applications like replacing organs or limbs will rather remain vision than become reality for a long time.
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Image: Colored image of a tissue sample; Copyright: UC San Diego Health Sciences

Regenerative medicine: new injection technique for spinal cord repair

03.02.2020

In rodent studies, a new method reduced likelihood of further spinal cord trauma while delivering large doses of potentially reparative stem cells. This approach may have utility for multiple neurodegenerative conditions.
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Image: Computer-generated image of an arborizing blood vessel; Copyright: panthermedia.net/Ugreen

Angiogenesis: light shows blood vessels the way

03.02.2020

Regenerative medicine aims to replace damage in the body with functional tissue and restore normal function. The first defense for large defects are implants made of hydrogels, designed to promote cell growth. They need their own blood supply, which is a problem when it comes to larger implants because you cannot regulate where and how the blood vessels grow - until now.
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Image: Man experimenting in a laboratory; Copyright: Newcastle University, UK

Damaging impact of infrared and visible rays on skin

24.01.2020

The damage visible and infrared light can do to our skin has been revealed for the first time in new research by scientists at Newcastle University, UK. The detrimental effects of exposure to the sun's rays are well documented, and the main aim of sunscreens is to protect the skin against dangerous ultraviolet radiation (UV).
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Image: close-up of fat cells; Copyright: Cincinnati Children's

Fat cells can sense sunlight

22.01.2020

Eye-opening study from Cincinnati Children's suggests that lack of sun can lead to problems beyond seasonal affective disorder. Yes, fat cells deep under your skin can sense light. And when bodies do not get enough exposure to the right kinds of light, fat cells behave differently.
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Image: body scan with focus on cells in the breast; Copyright: panthermedia.net/cliparea

Imaging: magnetized molecules used to monitor breast cancer

21.01.2020

A new type of scan that involves magnetising molecules allows doctors to see in real-time which regions of a breast tumour are active, according to research funded by Cancer Research UK and published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
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Image: Cells on a programmable composite of silica nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes; Copyright: Niemeyer-Lab, KIT

Programmable materials for stem cells

21.01.2020

Using DNA, smallest silica particles, and carbon nanotubes, researchers of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) developed novel programmable materials. These nanocomposites can be tailored to various applications and programmed to degrade quickly and gently.
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Image: Computer-generated image of the heart in front of sinus curves; Copyright: panthermedia.net/adrenalina (YAYMicro)

Electron cryomicroscopy shows cardiac thin filament structure

13.01.2020

Researchers at Osaka University used electron cryomicroscopy (CryoEM) to image essential cardiac muscle components, known as thin filaments, with unprecedented resolution. They also discovered the mechanism by which these filaments regulate heartbeat via cardiac muscle contractions in the presence or absence of calcium ions by changing their conformations.
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Image: graphic showing that cancer cells will be destroyed while healthy cells are spared with targeted pulsed ultrasound; Copyright: David Mittelstein

Ultrasound selectively damages cancer cells when tuned to correct frequencies

08.01.2020

Doctors have used focused ultrasound to destroy tumors without invasive surgery for some time. However, the therapeutic ultrasound used in clinics today indiscriminately damages cancer and healthy cells alike.
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Image: Volker Bruns; Copyright: Fraunhofer ISS

AI software: "iSTIX opens your world to the possibilities of digital pathology"

08.10.2019

The healthcare market offers a multitude of microscopes that make cells visible to the human eye. The same applies to AI-based software for image analysis. After taking the microscopic images, scientist are faced with large volumes of scans with usually low resolution. Yet when all aspects merge together, they open up a the world of digital pathology.
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Image: Cell cultivation in a Petri dish; Copyright: panthermedia.net / matej kastelic

Organ-on-a-chip – Organs in miniature format

01.02.2019

In vitro processes and animal tests are used to develop new medications and novel therapeutic approaches. However, animal testing raises important ethical concerns. Organ-on-a-chip models promise to be a feasible alternative. In a system the size of a smartphone, organs are connected using artificial circulation.
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Image: Man and woman in a laboratory presenting a multi-organ chip; Copyright: TissUse GmbH

Multi-Organ Chips – The Patients of Tomorrow?

01.02.2019

The liver, nervous tissue or the intestines: all are important human organs that have in the past been tested for their function and compatibility using animal or in vitro test methods. In recent years, TissUse GmbH, a spin-off of the Technical University of Berlin (TU Berlin), has launched multi-organ chip platforms. But that’s not all.
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Image: Graphic rendering of several cells in a petri dish; Copyright: panthermedia.net/dani3315

Organ-on-a-chip systems: limited validity?

01.02.2019

Organ-on-a-chip systems are technically a great enhancement of medical research because they facilitate testing of active ingredients on cell cultures in the chambers of a plastic chip. This replaces animal testing and improves patient safety. That being said, they are not a true-to-life replication of the human body and can only simulate a few functions and activities.
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From algorithm to rapid test – Artificial Intelligence classifies blood cells

21.11.2018

Our blood reveals a lot about our physical health. The shape of our blood cells sheds light on several hereditary diseases for example. For a diagnosis, the cells must first be examined under the microscope and categorized into a specific cell class. We met with Dr. Stephan Quint and Alexander Kihm of the Institute of Physics at the Saarland University, who explained how this classification works.
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Image: Small brown mole on the back of a hand; Copyright: panthermedia.net/Mario Hahn

Early detection: Tattoo signals cancer – and more

09.07.2018

People who are not ill and do not show any symptoms typically do not visit the doctor. And while most people know that preventive medical checkups for cancer, for example, are important, they still avoid them. They tend to be very hesitant because the doctor might detect a serious illness. In the future, a new type of implant could make it easier to go to a screening test.
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Image: AcCellerator research device at an exhibition stand; Copyright: Daniel Klaue, ZELLMECHANIK DRESDEN GmbH

Cells in the speed trap – diagnosis in a matter of seconds

22.06.2018

A drop of blood provides a lot of valuable information. However, it takes several hours to analyze the blood of a patient and make a diagnosis. This takes away a lot of time that's crucial for treatment. A new method intends to considerably speed up this process by testing the cells in the blood in terms of their deformability and immune response.
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Image: Two hands are holding a tubular frame that is carrying a glistening wet, white tube; Copyright: Leibniz University of Hanover/Institute of Technical Chemistry

Tissue engineering: how to grow a bypass

23.04.2018

A bypass is a complicated structure. It is either made of synthetic materials that can cause blood clots and infections or created by using the patient’s veins. However, the latter often does not yield adequate material. A newly developed bioreactor could solve this problem in the future. It is designed to tissue engineer vascular grafts by using the body’s own material.
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Image: yellow tape measure with capsules in front of it; Copyright: panthermedia.net/Jiri Hera

Personalized cancer medicine: customized treatment

01.03.2018

Everyone is different. This statement also applies to our health. Cancer, in particular, can look and progress differently depending on the individual person. That’s why every patient ideally also needs a customized treatment that is tailored to their individual needs. But how feasible is this idea?
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Image: a container with the nutrient medium for cancer cells; Copyright: Dr. Markus Wehland

Cells in space – extraterrestrial approaches in cancer research

22.02.2018

Here on Earth, all experiments are bound by gravitation. Yet, freed from gravity's grip, tumor cells, for example, behave in an entirely different way. As part of the "Thyroid Cancer Cells in Space" project by the University of Magdeburg, smartphone-sized containers carrying poorly differentiated thyroid cancer cells are sent into space.
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"Spray-On" muscle fibers for biomimetic surfaces

08.01.2018

Few patients with heart failure are fortunate enough to receive a donor's heart. Ventricular assist devices (or heart pumps) have been around for several years and are designed to buy time as patients wait for a transplant. Unfortunately, the body doesn't always tolerate these devices.
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