Scientists at the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston (UTMB) have uncovered one of the tricks: a “secret weapon” that the SARS coronavirus uses to sabotage the immune defences of infected cells. Experiments conducted by the UTMB scientists show that a SARS coronavirus protein called “nsp1” causes the breakdown of biochemical messages that normally prompt the production of a protein critical to defending the body against viruses.
“The SARS nsp1 protein degrades the messenger RNA instructions sent from DNA to make interferon beta, which is crucial to host immunity,” said UTMB professor of microbiology and immunology Shinji Makino. “This is a very rare phenomenon, and it raises a lot of questions — among them, whether we can make a mutant form of SARS coronavirus that lacks the ability to degrade messenger RNA, which could ultimately lead to the creation of a live attenuated vaccine for SARS.”
Although many viruses interfere with host cells making messenger RNA or translating it into infection-fighting proteins, only one other virus is known to break down messenger RNA: herpes simplex virus (HSV).
In 2003, the highly contagious and often-deadly mystery disease now called SARS emerged explosively out of Southern China. It eventually killed an estimated 916 people in Asia, Europe, and North and South America—nearly one in ten of those it infected.
MEDICA.de; Source: University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston