Background Reports 2019 -- MEDICA - World Forum for Medicine

Image: Close-up: The complex architecture of the neuroepithelial organoids with cell membranes; Copyright: Keisuke Ishihara

Keisuke Ishihara

Measuring organ development

28/11/2022

Researchers from Dresden and Vienna reveal link between connectivity of three-dimensional structures in tissues and the emergence of their architecture to help scientists engineer self-organising tissues that mimic human organs.
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Image: A small square apparatus, an electrochemical sensing platform for studying in vitro vascular systems. The channels and reservoirs were visualized using blue ink.; Copyright: Tohoku University

Tohoku University

Sensing platform for studying in vitro vascular systems

11/11/2022

The costliness of drug development and the limitations of studying physiological processes in the lab are two separate scientific issues that may share the same solution.
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Bild: Laboratory technician examines blood samples in test tubes to detect pathologies; Copyright: prostooleh

prostooleh

New troponin test improves heart attack diagnostics

07/11/2022

A new test has been developed in Turku, Finland, that helps in separating heart attack patients from those whose cardiac troponin values are elevated due to renal insufficiency.
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Bild: Four men with glasses are standing at the device for high-precision radiation; Copyright: Karin Kaiser / MHH.

Karin Kaiser / MHH.

Radiation against cardiac arrhythmias

24/10/2022

At the Hannover Medical School (MHH), radiation is now being used to help patients with cardiac arrhythmias. High-precision radiation from linear accelerators is used to treat the exact spot in the heart muscle that is responsible for the arrhythmia. The procedure is relatively new and is only carried out in a few clinics in Germany.
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Image: Hand wearing blue gloves holding a multi-organ chip; Copyright: TissUse GmbH

TissUse GmbH

Multi-organ chip detects dangerous nanoparticles

10/10/2022

What happens when we breathe in nanoparticles emitted by a laser printer, for example? Could these nanoparticles damage the respiratory tract or perhaps even other organs? To answer these questions, Fraunhofer researchers are developing the "NanoCube" exposure device.
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Image: Dipl.-Ing. Ronald Reich, Managing Director of NovaPump GmbH; Copyright: Fr. Nürnberger / Erfurt (Germany)

Fr. Nürnberger / Erfurt (Germany)

Research with heart saves human lives

04/10/2022

Researchers and entrepreneurs from Jena are winning hearts – literally. Together with the start-up NovaPump from Jena and the Jena University Hospital, the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Optics and Precision Engineering IOF has developed innovative heart valves and pumps.
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Image: A woman in a white coat sits in the laboratory and smiles at the camera; Copyright: Alex Dolce, Florida Atlantic University

Alex Dolce, Florida Atlantic University

'Placenta-on-a-chip' mimics malaria-infected nutrient exchange between mother-fetus

30/09/2022

Researchers from Florida Atlantic University’s College of Engineering and Computer Science and Schmidt College of Medicine have developed a placenta-on-a-chip model that mimics the nutrient exchange between the fetus and mother under the influence of placental malaria.
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Image: Microbiologist during an inspection of a petri dish; Copyright: microgen

microgen

Muscle models mimic diabetes, inform personalized medicine

21/09/2022

Abnormally high blood sugar (glucose) levels can result in Type 2 diabetes when things go awry with the body's skeletal muscle, which plays a key role in regulating glucose.
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Image: Close-up of an IV drip with a man in white scrubs in the background; Copyright: Anna Schroll/UKJ

Anna Schroll/UKJ

Therapeutic drug monitoring of antibiotics in sepsis

19/09/2022

The Target trial of Jena University Hospital tested the effect of therapeutic drug monitoring for antibiotics in patients with sepsis.
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Bild: Attached ECG electrodes to a male patient; Copyright: nunezimage

nunezimage

Attaining sinus rhythm mediates improved outcomes with atrial fibrillation

07/09/2022

A mediator analysis of the EAST – AFNET 4 trial dataset revealed the key factor for the effectiveness of early rhythm control (ERC) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF): The presence of sinus rhythm at 12 months after randomization explains 81% of the outcome-reducing effect of ERC.
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Image: Male torso lying on the floor demonstrating how to properly place an electrode on a patient; Copyright: pixelaway

pixelaway

New type of defibrillator met safety, effectiveness goals in global clinical study

05/09/2022

A new type of extravascular implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) using a lead (thin wire) placed behind the sternum met safety and effectiveness goals for participants in a premarket global clinical study.
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Image: Blood sample labelled

panthermedia.net/olanstock

Cardiac diagnostics – prompt and personalized

08/11/2019

If physicians suspect an acute myocardial infarction, they first order an ECG. This test is very established and allows cardiologists to quickly diagnose acute heart attacks – though the test does not detect less common heart attack symptoms. So far, those patients had to wait up to twelve hours before a heart attack could be accurately diagnosed or ruled out. But things are about the change.
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Image: Man with mouthguard and laboratory glasses holding Petri dish up; Copyright: panthermedia.net/kasto

panthermedia.net/kasto

Cardiac Tissue Engineering: a heart out of the Petri dish

23/09/2019

For patients waiting for donor organs, every day can mean the difference between life and death. Making things even more complicated is the fact that not every organ is a compatible match with the patient. It would mean enormous progress if we could grow organs from the patient's own cells in the lab. That's why patients with heart disease place big hope in tissue engineering.
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Image: Lung monitoring of a patient with PulmoVista 500 by Draeger; Copyright: Drägerwerk AG & Co. KGaA

Restoring Pulmonary Function

01/03/2019

People suffering from lung disease temporarily need ventilator support because they are unable to breathe naturally. Mechanical ventilation is designed to ensure the survival of these patients. The goal is to adapt the ventilator settings and tailor them the patient's specific needs and prevent lung tissue damage.
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Image: Preemie doll with drug delivery system on the nose; Copyright: Fraunhofer ITEM/Till Holland

Fraunhofer ITEM/Till Holland

Gentle medication for the little ones – with every breath

22/02/2019

According to the WHO, ten percent of babies worldwide are born prematurely. Since most organs of these tiny babies have not fully developed yet, it can quickly lead to complications and disorders and most notably affect the lungs of the premature infants. What's more, infections require gentle treatment, as the preemies themselves are fragile and susceptible – making this a challenging situation.
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Image: Man and woman in a laboratory presenting a multi-organ chip; Copyright: TissUse GmbH

Multi-Organ Chips – The Patients of Tomorrow?

01/02/2019

The liver, nervous tissue or the intestines: all are important human organs that have in the past been tested for their function and compatibility using animal or in vitro test methods. In recent years, TissUse GmbH, a spin-off of the Technical University of Berlin (TU Berlin), has launched multi-organ chip platforms. But that’s not all.
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Image: Cell cultivation in a Petri dish; Copyright: panthermedia.net / matej kastelic

Organ-on-a-chip – Organs in miniature format

01/02/2019

In vitro processes and animal tests are used to develop new medications and novel therapeutic approaches. However, animal testing raises important ethical concerns. Organ-on-a-chip models promise to be a feasible alternative. In a system the size of a smartphone, organs are connected using artificial circulation.
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Image: Woman at her desk holding her back; Copyright: panthermedia.net/Andrey Popov

panthermedia.net/Andrey Popov

AI ensures dynamic sitting

22/01/2019

Whether in the office, at school or behind the wheel: we spend a lot of time sitting and often stay in the same position for too long. The possible side effects are stiffness, back problems and pain. The SensA-Chair smart seating solution combats decreased mobility and ensures dynamic sitting.
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