Articles -- MEDICA - World Forum for Medicine

Image: team of researchers; Copyright: Saint Louis University

Scientists discover new causes of cellular decline in prematurely aging kids


Rare disease also sheds light on normal cell aging, SLU researcher says.
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Epigenetic analysis: Giving the right name to a tumor


Scientists from the "Hopp Children's Cancer Center" at the NCT Heidelberg (KiTZ) and the Neuropathology Department at Heidelberg University Hospital have substantially enhanced the classification of tumors of the central nervous system (CNS).
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Hepatitis B: a new strategy for eliminating mother-to-child transmission


A clinical study coordinated by the French National Research Institute for Sustainable Development and Chiang Mai University with their Thai, American, and French partners, strengthens the case for a new strategy to prevent mother-to-child transmission of the hepatitis B virus.
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TSRI scientists zero in on treatment for Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease


About 1 in 2,500 people have a degenerative nerve disease called Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT). The disease is typically diagnosed in children, who can lose their ability to walk and use their hands for fine motor skills. There is no cure – yet.
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A new tactic for eczema?


Scientists identify a natural brake on the allergic attack.
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Strong relationships in midlife may offset health risks for victims of childhood abuse


Victims are not necessarily on a path towards poor health in adulthood.
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Image: Woman holding a glass of milk in her hand; Copyright: Georg Mair/Vetmeduni Vienna

Vitamin A in cattle fodder is potentially protecting against cow's milk allergy


Infants can sometimes develop an allergy to cow's milk that usually subsides by adulthood but may increase the risk for developing other allergic diseases.
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Image: digital screening mammography with fine calcifications (arrow) which resulted in the diagnosis of an aggressive preliminary stage of breast cancer; Copyright: UK Münster

Breast cancer discovered in its preliminary stages in mammography screening is usually aggressive


In the biennial mammography screening programme, the most frequent diagnosis of breast cancer in its preliminary stages is, biologically, the most aggressive form. High-grade ductal carcinoma in situ holds the greatest risk of developing into a so-called invasive carcinoma.
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For children with respiratory infections, antibiotics with narrower targets are better


CHOP researchers find outcomes are similar, but broader-spectrum antibiotics have higher risk of adverse effects.
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The Down's syndrome "super genome"


Down's syndrome – also known as trisomy 21 – is a genetic disorder caused by an additional third chromosome 21. Although this genetic abnormality is found in one out of 700 births, only 20% of foetuses with trisomy 21 reach full term. But how do they manage to survive the first trimester of pregnancy despite this heavy handicap?
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Scientists discover how treating eczema could also alleviate asthma


Scientists from VIB-UGent have discovered insights for a possible new therapy for eczema that also reduces the severity of asthma. The findings are an important next step in understanding the relationship between the two inflammatory diseases and to developing effective therapies. The results of the study are published in the Journal of Investigative Dermatology.
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Overweight children more likely to underestimate their size


Estimating your own body size and weight can be difficult. It turns out that this is true not only for adults, but also for children.
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Autoimmune reaction successfully halted in early stage islet autoimmunity


Scientists at Helmholtz Zentrum München have discovered a mechanism that amplifies the autoimmune reaction in an early stage of pancreatic islet autoimmunity prior to the progression to clinical type 1 diabetes. If the researchers blocked the corresponding molecules, the immune system was significantly less active.
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Pneumonia in Children: Ultrasound or X-Rays?


Pneumonia is the most frequent respiratory disease in children and can even cause death. That is why it is extremely important to make an accurate diagnosis as quickly as possible. If this requires imaging tests, normally X-rays are taken. But there is an alternative: ultrasound.
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Image: A young girl is lying in the hospital bed, behind her a nurse is adjusting a monitor; Copyright: / Monkeybusiness Images

Working with children with cancer – More than just a job


Our topic title "pediatric (children’s) oncology" evoked strong emotional reactions from several mothers and fathers of our staff. "This hits too close to home for me, I couldn’t write about it", or "How do people manage to deal with this?". And we are only on the sidelines; physicians, caregivers and nurses at the hospital, hospice or families at home are the ones that have the real tough job.
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"Always be honest" – How to communicate with critically ill children


When children suffer from a critical or terminal illness, the first impulse of adults is often to not tell the children and sugarcoat the situation. Yet it is just this type of behavior that frequently causes children to emotionally withdraw.
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Image: Three physicians during a meeting; Copyright: KiTZ/Philipp Benjamin

Children's Tumor Center: consolidated treatment under one roof


Treatments for children need to be different from treatment for adults – this also applies in oncology. Having said that, children do not just need new and different treatment concepts that still necessitate research. They also require the support from their families, who need to be nearby during treatment.
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Image: girl in the MRI, physican besides; Copyright: Klinikum Dortmund/Dr. Lindel

MRI scan: Video projections help children overcome their fear


A beautiful field of flowers, a trip to the beach or a visit to the zoo. Children can experience all of these at the Clinical Center Dortmund in a 270- degree projection on the wall. The Center created a space that is designed to help its little patients overcome their fear of MRI scans.
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Photo: Two people with recumbent bikes during a race; Copyright: ETH Zürich/Alessandro Della Bella

Cybathlon: A new type of competition for people with disabilities


Technical means that lend superpowers to humans are quite normal in comics and movies. In reality, their purpose is much more mundane: They are supposed to help people with disabilities in everyday life. MEDICA MEDICINE + SPORTS CONFERENCE, that takes place at MEDICA in November, is dealing with this topic, too.
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Cardiac insufficiency: early diagnosis with ultrasound


Heart failure or cardiac insufficiency presents an extra strain on patients because it severally limits everyday performance and deprives them of energy. Due to their intense need for movement, children are particularly strongly affected. However, the disease is frequently not detected until the physical performance is already declining. An early diagnosis could prevent this.
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Diabetes: comprehensive prevention, early "vaccination"?


A diagnosis of diabetes often catches new patients off guard - for instance if they end up in the emergency room suffering from metabolic decompensation. Children are often affected by this. Their immune system destroys the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas early on in their lives, thus causing type 1 diabetes.
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Photo: Three-dimensional model of the right ventricle

Ultrasound: four dimensions for pediatric cardiac diagnostics


Fortunately, only a handful of newborns are affected by them, though this determines if not the rest of their lives then, at least, the first few years of affected children: congenital heart defects. After the necessary surgeries, the small patients repeatedly need to return for checkups. Until now, these were conducted using MRI scans. 4D ultrasound can be an alternative.
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Artificial heart valve: "The structure is meant to be broken down again by the body at a later point."


There are various artificial heart valves available for children, but they have one essential drawback: they need to be replaced because the children are still growing. The artificial valve, on the other hand, remains the same size – and subsequently becomes too small. This is why an artificial heart valve that grows over time would be ideal.
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Pediatric pathology: Specialized knowledge for the youngest


When children are sick, their parents take them to a pediatrician. A pediatric pathologist is needed when pathology exams need to be conducted. This branch of pathology requires specialized knowledge. The Society for Pediatric and Fetal Pathologists is championing the transfer and preservation of this knowledge.
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Pediatric anesthesia: "I would object to a specialty medical training"


When very young children already need to be in the operating room, it’s not just the parents that are concerned. This type of situation is a special challenge for the entire operating team, because children are always very special patients - especially since they are not just simply small grown-ups!
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