17/07/2018Could the diagnosis and treatment of mental health disorders one day be aided through the help of machine learning? New research from the University of Alberta is bringing us closer to that future through a study published in Molecular Psychiatry.
17/07/2018Every year, more than one in three individuals aged 65 and older will experience a fall. Falls are the most common cause of injury in older adults, and can create ongoing health problems. But treatment and awareness of falling usually happens after a fall has already occurred.
13/07/2018Last month alone, 23 percent of Americans took two or more prescription drugs, according to one CDC estimate, and 39 percent over age 65 take five or more, a number that's increased three-fold in the last several decades. And if that isn't surprising enough, try this one: in many cases, doctors have no idea what side effects might arise from adding another drug to a patient's personal pharmacy.
13/07/2018Personalized medicine - delivering therapies specially tailored to a patient's unique physiology - has been a goal of researchers and doctors for a long time. New research provides a way of delivering personalized treatments to patients with neurological disease.
12/07/2018Like with fingerprints, no two people have the same brain anatomy, a study by researchers of the University of Zurich has shown. This uniqueness is the result of a combination of genetic factors and individual life experiences.
12/07/2018Researchers at Linköping University have for the first time been able to use information from computer tomography images to simulate the heart function of an individual patient. Some of the modelling methods they use have been developed in the motor industry.
11/07/2018Researchers at the Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG) in Barcelona developed a new method to systematically identify genes contributing to heritable cancer risk. Their work, which is published in Nature Communications, is a success story for data sharing and openness in science. Just three researchers identified new cancer genes only using publically available data.
11/07/2018If you want to learn to walk a tightrope, it's a good idea to go for a short run after each practice session. That’s because a recent study in NeuroImage demonstrates that exercise performed immediately after practicing a new motor skill improves its long-term retention.
10/07/2018Is it possible for microscopes to learn a bit about the brain? Even be taught by neuroscientists to reliably recognize parts of brain cells - all on their own? Though it may seem like something straight out of The Jetsons, a neuroscientist and software engineer in the lab of MPFI's Scientific Director is developing new software with the goal of vastly improving the daily life of a microscope user.
10/07/2018A new positron emission tomography (PET) imaging method more fully evaluates the extent of rheumatoid arthritis by targeting translocator protein (TSPO) expression in the synovium (joint lining tissue). The study is featured in the July issue of The Journal of Nuclear Medicine.
09/07/2018Artificial intelligence (AI) holds real potential for improving both the speed and accuracy of medical diagnostics. But before clinicians can harness the power of AI to identify conditions in images such as X-rays, they have to 'teach' the algorithms what to look for.
09/07/2018Designing new molecules for pharmaceuticals is primarily a manual, time-consuming process that's prone to error. But MIT researchers have now taken a step toward fully automating the design process, which could drastically speed things up - and produce better results.
06/07/2018In the future, companies will be able to offer flexible production close to their customers. A fully automated production line can be housed inside a 20-foot ISO container, which a heavy truck can transport quickly to wherever it is needed. Medical products can be manufactured in close proximity to a hospital, for instance.
06/07/2018People with disabilities such as ALS, spinal injury or Lou Gehrig's disease, often lose use of their legs, arms or hands. Even at advanced stages of the disease, one may still retain movement in their eyes. Some technologies have incorporated eye-tracking to enable disabled persons to interact with a computer to communicate messages to a caregiver.
05/07/2018A wireless device designed for detection of heart dysfunction in childhood cancer survivors treated with anthracycline chemotherapy was accurate and displayed a low false-negative rate as compared to cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging.
04/07/2018A total of 200,000 euros has been granted to the spin-off project Theraselect. The Helmholtz Association and Helmholtz Zentrum München will each provide half the funding for the designated spin-off. The project centres around a mass spectrometry imaging method that makes thousands of molecules visible in tissue samples.
04/07/2018While ultrasound is one of the most common medical imaging tools, conventional electronic ultrasound devices tend to be bulky and cannot be used at the same time as some other imaging technologies. A new ultrasound system that uses optical, instead of electronic components, could improve performance while giving doctors significantly more flexibility in how they use ultrasound.
03/07/2018Enabled by a generous gift from the Roy J. Carver Charitable Trust, the BioMaker Lab at the Frederick Seitz Materials Research Lab (MRL) will be the first state-of-the-art interdisciplinary biofabrication hub in the world.
02/07/2018When the heart stops beating, irreversible brain damage occurs within minutes without resuscitation. Meanwhile, action is only taken in very few instances of cardiac arrest. Even first responders frequently feel helpless in this situation. In Germany, approximately 65,000 people die each year from sudden cardiac arrest. This is where EmergencyEye comes in to offer valuable support.
28/06/2018Benjamin A.Garcia, PhD, an expert in quantitative proteomics and Presidential Professor of Biochemistry and Biophysics in the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, has been awarded the Biemann Medal by the American Society for Mass Spectrometry (ASMS). The early-career award recognizes significant achievement in basic or applied mass spectrometry.
22/06/2018A drop of blood provides a lot of valuable information. However, it takes several hours to analyze the blood of a patient and make a diagnosis. This takes away a lot of time that's crucial for treatment. A new method intends to considerably speed up this process by testing the cells in the blood in terms of their deformability and immune response.
08/06/2018Every day, hospital staff has to manage complex processes to guarantee quality and patient safety. Yet in some areas, the use of checklists and manuals tends to be more cumbersome and not useful – as is the case in sterile processing. A new project studies how augmented reality can take all the necessary information into the staff's field of view.
08/06/2018A common in optometrists' offices may hold the key to faster diagnosis of schizophrenia, predicting relapse and symptom severity and assessing treatment effectiveness, a Rutgers University study finds.
02/05/2018X-rays for diagnostic imaging and therapy evaluation are still the norm in orthopedics. Meanwhile, patients who frequently need X-rays are repeatedly exposed to radiation. That's why the University Hospital RWTH Aachen uses and develops methods that are not just radiation-free but can also capture motions.
08/02/2018When body tissue is reconnected during a tumor operation in the gastrointestinal tract, surgeons need information about the current state of these so-called anastomoses. The new, non-invasive hyperspectral imaging technology now makes it possible to measure the crucial parameters during surgery and thereby increase surgical precision.
01/02/2018Medical supply distribution, supplying operating rooms with sterile instrument kits, the provision of food and catering services for patients – these are some of the around-the-clock care processes at a hospital. Efficient logistics are crucial to guarantee smooth processes. All of these pieces ultimately come together at the hospital’s in-house logistics center.
01/02/2018During a visit to the hospital, patients naturally expect to receive comprehensive care. Not only does this include the proper treatment, but also a hospital bed and regular meals for example. Patients typically don't ask about the transport logistics this entails for the hospital.
01/02/2018Hospitals need an accurate assessment of the location and quantity of their materials to eliminate sources of error. Automated processes can also help employees to make these materials available at the right time and at the right place. Digital network systems will substantially support the logistics in the hospital of the future.
04/01/2018The position and alignment of surgical tools in the patient’s body must always be kept in view during the operation process to guarantee success and safety. With fine sensors at the tip of the instruments and an electromagnetic signal, Fiagon's electromagnetic navigation systems accurately reproduce their position in the body.
04/01/2018Imaging, navigation, integration – these are terms that describe the modern operating room. All of these components play a key role in accurate surgical procedures. They are integrated into surgical navigation systems, which make complicated medical surgeries considerably safer.
01/12/2017The road to a marketable medical device is long and winding. Devices must meet specific regulatory requirements for medical applications. It's especially challenging for startups to stay on top of these criteria. That's why the German Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices has started to offer the Innovation Office since the beginning of this year – an information hub for startups.
01/12/2017To ensure product quality and patient safety, medical devices must meet specific requirements outlined in the Medical Devices Act and specified EU directives. Yet which norms and standards must actually be met and how is this verified?
23/10/2017According to the WHO, 300 million people throughout the world are affected by lymphedema. This condition occurs when fluid that flows between cells is no longer transported back into the blood circulation and accumulates in the skin. Triggers can be surgeries, injuries or genetic defects for example. A new microscopy technique could now also indicate the causes.
02/10/2017mHealth has been slated to revolutionize the healthcare market for the past few years. Yet things are not quite as easy for apps and wearables as it may seem. A recently conducted study reveals that there are still many obstacles to overcome before manufacturers and health professionals can connect with patients and their mobile devices.
02/10/2017Since the eHealth Law took effect on January 1, 2016, it has become apparent that digitization also affects the healthcare system. Its objective is to improve the digital infrastructure of healthcare. For several years, a subcategory of electronic healthcare solutions has enjoyed increasing popularity: mHealth.
02/10/2017This year, expect a series of exciting innovations that include the informative and practice-oriented MEDICA ACADEMY, the START-UP PARK for newcomers and networkers from the startup arena and the interdisciplinary MEDICA LABMED Forum.
08/09/2017These days, many groups make various demands of medical device developers: manufacturers, users, patients and government agencies. Given all of these interests and concerns, the developers face many challenges. In this interview, we put some of them under the microscope and examine how they can be sidestepped or entirely avoided.
01/09/2017Many people are affected by heart disease today because - among other reasons- our modern unhealthy lifestyle is taking a toll on our hearts. A reliable diagnosis and treatment are crucial for patients with heart disease since all other organs depend on the pumping of our vital organ. Modern imaging techniques are a key to understanding the heart.
22/08/2017Physics has always supported medical science, especially when it comes to practical implementation. Now physicists and health professionals join in collaborative research at an interdisciplinary Center in Erlangen and incorporate fundamental principles of theoretical physics in their studies of diseases.
08/08/2017For centuries, scientific research has succeeded by chronicling experiments with pinpoint accuracy. Yet despite all the progress in the actual laboratory, recording is often still done manually, in notebooks, logs or computer systems for instance. In the future, a gesture recognition system could perform this task for scientists.
01/08/2017An increasing percentage of the world population suffers from chronic inflammatory disorders of the respiratory system. Acute attacks often lead to a worsening of the disease and considerably reduce the patient’s lung volume. Nine institutes of a research alliance under the Leibniz Institute umbrella are working on technologies designed to predict and thus prevent exacerbations.
01/08/2017Advances in technology and analysis techniques, as well as the increasing miniaturization of laboratory equipment and processes, make it possible: patient-side laboratory testing, better known as point-of-care testing or POCT. There are many POCT projects and all of them promise a rapid diagnosis as well as economic advantages. But are these tests also suited for everyday medical testing?
10/07/2017Radiation therapies are an essential component of today’s oncology because they enable the treatment of localized tumors. Yet they have one major drawback: radiation damages not just tumor cells but also healthy tissue. One solution to solve this problem could be proton minibeam therapy, which uses finely focused beams.
03/07/2017The scalpel is considered the classic surgical instrument and as such, has remained unchanged for quite some time. However, today’s technology opens up a world of new possibilities for cutting tissue. Next to high-frequency electrosurgical scalpels that work with electric power, surgeons also use a variety of different lasers. They promise great usability and better treatment.
03/07/2017Precision work is absolutely essential in eye surgery since the surgical site is very minute and sensitive. This is why eye surgeons have been using lasers for years. Femtosecond lasers are especially well suited to serve this purpose because they are able to cut tissue with great precision and little energy, which prevents unwanted side effects of surgery.
03/07/2017Not all lasers are the same – especially in the surgical field, it all depends on what’s inside: the different operational wavelengths of laser light also affect human tissue in different ways. This is why a single laser for a variety of applications drastically simplifies the job of physicians.
01/06/2017A stroke, an accident or just because you are aging – there are many reasons to take advantage of physiotherapeutic or rehabilitative measures. More and more new technologies are designed to support patients in this process. They run the gamut from sensor technology and robotics to exergames and virtual reality.
01/06/2017Movement is good for health, but people do it less and less as they age. The Dutch company SilverFit wants to counteract this. Their devices that combine sport and game are primarily aimed at elderly people. Their goal: to give people joy, fun and motivation to move – both in rehabilitation and in daily life.
22/05/2017For many years, cochlear implants have restored a sense of hearing in people with certain types of hearing loss. For surgeons, the implantation requires a precise attention to detail under the microscope. The results for the patients improve significantly with a more precise placement of the electrode array. The use of a surgical robot can increase the accuracy of the procedure.
02/05/2017India is a land of contradictions. On the one hand, it has densely populated cities with state of the art technology. On the other hand, two-thirds of the population still live under challenging hygienic and financial conditions in the rural areas. Despite these conditions or perhaps because of them, more and more medical technology companies from all over the world are interested in this market.
02/05/2017When it comes to the production and development of tech products, many people immediately think of Germany, Japan, the U.S. or Taiwan. What’s often unknown is that an emerging market like India also offers great potential. After all, the country has a large number of experts and just as much technical knowledge at its disposal.
01/03/2017In the "KDI – Clinical Data Intelligence Project", researchers are trying to consolidate various types of data to make them useable and useful to both medical professionals and scientists. This is a tremendous undertaking, considering the data volumes from different sources. In this conversation with MEDICA, Dr. Martin Sedlmayr explains the project setup.
01/03/2017The OR is the centerpiece of every hospital and also the most expensive resource that should be used efficiently. Yet in reality, there are often delays when interventions are not intelligently scheduled and take place back-to-back. This is why the InnOPlan Research Consortium wants to make surgical device data usable and useful to improve the operating room planning process.
08/02/2017Listening to your favorite music for at least 90 minutes a day and treating your tinnitus with it? Almost sounds too good to be true. Yet more and more German statutory health insurance providers pay for this treatment. We wanted to know more about it and spoke with Jörg Land, the CEO of Sonormed GmbH, about Tinnitracks.
21/12/2016Within the scope of the VIRUSCAN project that is funded by the Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Program of the European Union, Dr. Charlotte Uetrecht from Hamburg/Germany investigates individual viruses to be able to later identify them on a nanospring structure. MEDICA.de wanted to know: how does this work?
02/11/2016Call systems: every hospital patient is familiar with them, but hardly anyone gives any thought to how they work. And yet they fulfill an important function because in an emergency, they "call" for help. Just think what might happen if they didn’t work. That is why they are subject to stringent safety regulations. We spoke with D.Eng. Matthias Rychetsky, who is familiar with call systems.
10/10/2016The year 2016 brings about the new, eagerly anticipated Medical Device Regulation (MDR). The revision needs to now be implemented by all EU member states in the coming years after there have been ongoing deliberations and negotiations since October 2012.
04/10/2016So far, avatars could only be found in computer games. But if researchers of the EU-wide www.myhealthavatar.eu project have their way, this could soon change.
08/08/2016What happens when stem cells differentiate? What molecular characteristics do they have? Questions that can now be easier answered with the help of a new open-source software. We spoke with Prof. Fabian Theis at the Helmholtz Center Munich, who participated in the software development.
01/08/2016Humans leave large ecological footprints on the planet. Nevertheless, sustainability - that being resource-conserving and environmentally oriented action - is still far from being a concern everywhere. The public sector, in particular, has a difficult time with this because sustainability requires initial funding to renew and adapt processes and technology. This applies especially to hospitals.
01/07/2016Added stress or relief? The digitization of the workplace is both since we can be better and more often reached and - at least in some areas - also be gradually replaced by a machine. But digital tools are also able to support us by measuring our body’s basic functions and warning us if we endanger our health.
01/07/2016Technical means that lend superpowers to humans are quite normal in comics and movies. In reality, their purpose is much more mundane: They are supposed to help people with disabilities in everyday life. MEDICA MEDICINE + SPORTS CONFERENCE, that takes place at MEDICA in November, is dealing with this topic, too.
01/07/2016More than 30 companies will again show the latest healthcare wearables. The 4th MEDICA MEDICINE + SPORTS CONFERENCE has established as the hot spot for innovations in sports medicine.
01/06/2016Until now, plasma, the fourth state of matter,was consideredfascinatingonly to astrophysicists and science fiction fans. But at this point, it also attracts the interest of medicine because plasma can have many uses in this field. In the future, plasma sterilization could become an important component of hospital hygiene-provided that the right device is being used.
22/04/2016How can you print ceramics, what purpose do they have and how benefits medical technology? Answers provides Dr. Tassilo Moritz from Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems IKTS.
01/03/2016Fortunately, only a handful of newborns are affected by them, though this determines if not the rest of their lives then, at least, the first few years of affected children: congenital heart defects. After the necessary surgeries, the small patients repeatedly need to return for checkups. Until now, these were conducted using MRI scans. 4D ultrasound can be an alternative.
01/03/2016Every little thing can be a matter of life or death for premature babies. That is why the right diagnosis plays an extremely important role. This includes examining infants with an MRI scan. Until now, sliding premature babies into an MRI scanner without an incubator was only possible to a limited degree. Now this problem could be solved.
22/01/2016It may fits, but somewhere it still tweaks. Although a suit off the rack serves its purpose, it is still far from being an ideal solution. With a custom made heart it is different. It is similar with implants. Often patients complain about the fact that those implants feel strange. 3D printing is on the best way to change this. Here, the implants are adapted to the carrier.
01/12/2015If you could stimulate brain cells to grow in a specific direction, you would probably be able to achieve a significant improvement in the health of patients suffering from Parkinson’s disease. This is why the MAGNEURON project focuses on this approach. The EU is funding the project with approximately 3.5 million Euros.
02/11/2015Minimally invasive surgeries are gentler on the patient but have one distinct disadvantage for the surgeon: he is not able to interact directly with the operating field. Sometimes he misses impressions that are very important to the success of the intervention. The MiroSurge robot for surgical applications which transmits feedback to the surgeon can help.
02/11/2015Performing surgery in a hybrid operating room is meant to be a relief for the staff and offer patients new options for treatment. What is actually so different about this hybrid operating room, what can you expect and what should you keep in mind during the planning process?
01/10/2015It is a portmanteau, a mixture of two words. This way it saves us time and trouble while speaking because the human speech apparatus is lazy. And it describes a mixture of procedures: the combination of two procedures that would normally be separate in medicine. We are talking about theranostics.
01/10/2015A proper diagnosis is a part of great therapy. However, it can also be beneficial to be able to quickly respond to changes during a treatment. One example of this is the treatment of uterine myomas. Female patients at the University Hospital Bonn are treated using so-called high-intensity focused ultrasound, HIFU in short. Prof. Holger Strunk explains this procedure.
01/09/2015They can be seen everywhere: at the wrists, in the ear, clipped to the belt. Wearables are small technical assistants who are built to collect and partially also to analyze data. Some of them collect measurable health data, others "only" count their user’s steps or measure the surrounding UV radiation. The fact is, however, that wearables are en vogue and are used for many different cases.
01/09/2015They are exciting for enthusiasts of the "quantified self" movement and extremely useful for athletes: wearables that measure and store numerous body parameters and enable long-term data analysis. Yet, for their use in medicine and rehabilitation, manufacturer and user both need to ask themselves how safe the devices actually are.
03/08/2015Malignant tumors can be fought with X-rays – usually with radiation therapy from outside the body. Nuclear medicine physicians can also accomplish this inside the body with radioactive materials, called radiopharmaceuticals. They also offer big benefits for clinical diagnostics as long as a specific target can be assigned to them.
01/07/2015When measuring myocardial activity, it is important for the skin to always stay moist under the electrodes of the ECG. Only then can data be consistently transferred. Athletes have an easier time with this: they are used to sweating. This is a lot harder for older patients.
01/07/2015In the case of cardiac arrhythmia, the normal heart rate gets out of balance due to various reasons. In some cases, it is necessary to implant a cardiac pacemaker. Just like with any intervention, this type of surgery also involves risks. In the worst-case scenario, this can lead to abnormal wound healing or obliteration of the vascular system.
01/06/2015When cancer is diagnosed, the terms tumor markers or biomarkers keep popping up. They describe characteristics that are not found in healthy persons. The classic tumor markers can be easily detected in blood samples or other body fluids. Other analysis methods require more effort. Yet they all share one thing in common: biomarkers indicate a potential tumor.
01/06/2015A tumor is as unique as the person who is affected by it. For a long time, it was assumed this would make treatment more difficult since cancer drugs are not able to be one hundred percent effective in targeting the affected cells. In this interview with MEDICA.de, Professor Ugur Sahin explains why it is precisely these individual mutations that make him hopeful for a new type of therapy.
04/05/2015Whether it is a mammogram, colonoscopy or a skin cancer screening – after a certain age, we are subject to various early cancer detection screenings. Yet many of us don’t know that these screening tests are also associated with risks. This is something what Dr. Sylvia Sänger from the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf discovered in a study.
02/03/2015Crises come in many shapes and sizes. Whether it’s poor hygiene, thefts or treatment errors – once the crisis has arrived, things need to move quickly. For hospitals in particular, the right crisis communication is key. Yet many medical facilities still neglect the fact that crisis communication starts before the actual crisis takes place.
02/02/2015The digitization of medicine moves on. Researchers, physicians and patients equally benefit from this development – thanks to improved diagnostics with highly sensitive devices, today findings can be comprehensively analyzed and treatment decisions made on a broadened basis. Digitization also offers the area of pathology interesting fields of application.
03/11/2014As an imaging procedure, magnetic resonance tomography has become essential in clinical practice, since it can easily make organs and tissue visible. However, until now abnormal cancer cells or small centers of inflammation remained almost invisible. Now cell biologists from Berlin, Germany, have succeeded in fixing this problem with xenon magnetic resonance imaging.
01/10/2014Even though exoskeletons for people requiring a wheelchair are nothing new, they are still controversial. After all, at first glance they suggest a miracle recovery. But this is not the actual intention. In fact, exoskeletons facilitate a special form of therapy that returns at least a small portion of independence to the respective person.
01/10/2014Herniated discs can have very different effects: some cause no discomfort and are only discovered by accident; others can cause paralysis or cause patients to be in great pain. For the most part, these problems develop suddenly after an awkward movement – at least that is what patients report.
01/07/2014The not so popular “love handles“ could revolutionize medicine in the near future. In cooperation with the University of Rostock (Professor Hermann Seitz), the human med AG Company currently seeks to develop a device that is able to gently remove adipose tissue during surgery and subsequently isolate stem cells.
02/06/2014When are sports healthy, how often should you engage in sports and what effect do sports have on the body – over the past few decades, there were always different answers to these questions. Many studies that were conducted in the past however confirm the assumption that sports and exercise always support health, even if someone is already sick.
02/05/2014Whether in remote areas or in a large city – people everywhere need good healthcare. Thanks to mobile health, more and more people can get medical help, even in poor regions of the world.
02/05/2014Successful communication is most important in medicine. The most modern channels have been utilized in this area for quite some time now. Medical apps need to meet several requirements at once. For their use to pay off, they need to be beneficial for prevention or therapy. And to ensure a safe application, they also need to be both technically and medically flawless.
02/05/2014Staying active and mobile when you are old – who doesn’t want that? People suffering from dementia can often only dream about that. The fear of not finding your way back home or not getting any help in an emergency severally restricts many affected people in the way they live their lives. Yet there are many people, who could still independently participate in life despite mild dementia.
01/04/2014In an emergency, every flick of the wrist has to be correct – the right treatment is time-critical and usually vital. Mistakes can be fatal, so emergency physicians and paramedics need to be seasoned and experienced. But they will not always know certain problems from their daily work. Using patient simulators, they are able to train for rare situations and learn possible solutions.
04/03/2014Prenatal care, cancer check-up, vascular examinations – sonography is versatile, provides reliable imaging to physicians and does not tax patients with radiation. It is comprehensively available, from doctor’s office to university medical center. A sound continuing education of sonography users is essential for good diagnostics, also since different devices have different strong points.
03/02/2014Differentiating tumor tissue from healthy tissue isn’t always easy for surgeons. Scattered cancer cells and early cancer are often hard to detect with the naked eye. A special camera now makes even the tiniest remainder of a tumor visible during surgery.
03/02/2014Shortening a time-consuming procedure from four hours to five minutes and automate it at the same time sounds like a dream come true for employees in all fields and industry sectors. This dream could soon become a reality for radiologists. Software could take away the tedious processing of CT images, which is required before cancer radiation therapy.
06/01/2014Even medical risk products are not always tested as thoroughly as would be necessary – be it because of criminal energy, lack of know-how or financial reasons. A revision of clinical trial procedures could not only fix loop holes and methodological flaws. Products and methods could also be brought into general medical care more quickly under new rules.
06/01/2014In the operating room, it is especially important for the used devices to be safe and tolerable to the human body. Switzerland also shares this point of view. MEDICA.de spoke with Dr. Christoph Röder from the University of Bern about approval procedures and regulations that are being pursued in Swiss operating rooms.
05/01/2014Eventually, all adults need to see a physician for colon cancer prevention. While the exam goes by quickly thanks to sedation, it sometimes leads to a follow-up procedure if a growth in the colon could not be removed with the endoscope and requires open surgery.