Articles -- MEDICA - World Forum for Medicine

Image: yellow tape measure with capsules in front of it; Copyright: Hera

Personalized cancer medicine: customized treatment


Everyone is different. This statement also applies to our health. Cancer, in particular, can look and progress differently depending on the individual person. That’s why every patient ideally also needs a customized treatment that is tailored to their individual needs. But how feasible is this idea?
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Image: three drawings of unusual lung structures; Copyright: B. Smith, McGill; RI-MUHC

Unusual lung structures may raise risk of pulmonary disease


The internal anatomy of our lungs is surprisingly variable, and some of those variations are associated with a greater risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a new study led by researchers at McGill University and the Columbia University Irving Medical Center has found.
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Image: digital screening mammography with fine calcifications (arrow) which resulted in the diagnosis of an aggressive preliminary stage of breast cancer; Copyright: UK Münster

Breast cancer discovered in its preliminary stages in mammography screening is usually aggressive


In the biennial mammography screening programme, the most frequent diagnosis of breast cancer in its preliminary stages is, biologically, the most aggressive form. High-grade ductal carcinoma in situ holds the greatest risk of developing into a so-called invasive carcinoma.
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For children with respiratory infections, antibiotics with narrower targets are better


CHOP researchers find outcomes are similar, but broader-spectrum antibiotics have higher risk of adverse effects.
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Image: doctor measures blood sugar level in an elderly man in a hospital bed; Copyright: ltd

People with diabetes face increased risk of infections


Diabetes patients have an increased risk of suffering serious infections or death compared to the general public, new research has shown. The study analysed the electronic GP and hospital records of more than 100,000 English adults aged 40 to 89 years with a diabetes diagnosis, and compared them to those without a diabetes diagnosis.
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Image: graph of periodontal disease severity; Copyright: Michaud DS et al

More evidence of link between severe gum disease and cancer risk


Data collected during a long-term health study provides additional evidence for a link between increased risk of cancer in individuals with advanced gum disease.
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Image: Young female student is sitting between shelves on the floor of a library and reads; Copyright: Jones

Patient science: patients research cystic fibrosis


Research does not always occur in laboratory settings. As part of citizen science, citizens collect data and make it available for research projects. Now, this approach is also adopted in medicine by way of patient science: in a new project, patients take part in cystic fibrosis research. The goal is to improve the lives of those who are affected by this chronic disease.
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New therapeutic approach for advanced lung disease


COPD patients suffer from chronic inflammation of the respiratory tract. Certain enzymes, so-called protein kinases, regulate the inflammation process. They are indirectly over-activated due to smoking, due to pro-inflammatory factors characteristic of COPD, and due to respiratory infections.
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Image: Man who is blowing into a smartphone adapter for breath tests; Copyright: THM/Gross/Sohrabi

AST@home: A rapid respiratory test for COPD using the smartphone


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease often requires a detailed documentation of the course. As part of the AST@home project, Professor Keywan Sohrabi and Professor Volker Groß at the THM developed an app that enables the monitoring of the course of COPD via smartphone and includes family members or nursing staff.
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Molecular Microsystems: Preventing Exacerbations of Asthma and COPD


An increasing percentage of the world population suffers from chronic inflammatory disorders of the respiratory system. Acute attacks often lead to a worsening of the disease and considerably reduce the patient’s lung volume. Nine institutes of a research alliance under the Leibniz Institute umbrella are working on technologies designed to predict and thus prevent exacerbations.
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Point-of-care testing: helpful when things need to happen quickly?


Advances in technology and analysis techniques, as well as the increasing miniaturization of laboratory equipment and processes, make it possible: patient-side laboratory testing, better known as point-of-care testing or POCT. There are many POCT projects and all of them promise a rapid diagnosis as well as economic advantages. But are these tests also suited for everyday medical testing?
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Image: Children playing outside, getting wet in the water; Copyright: ltd

Pneumonia in Children: Ultrasound or X-Rays?


Pneumonia is the most frequent respiratory disease in children and can even cause death. That is why it is extremely important to make an accurate diagnosis as quickly as possible. If this requires imaging tests, normally X-rays are taken. But there is an alternative: ultrasound.
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Lung cancer: A blood test evaluates the effectiveness of therapy


Can liquid biopsies become the new trend in cancer diagnostics? The medical world has asked this question for quite some time. The first globally approved liquid biopsy-based test for lung cancer shows that this can work. Yet further findings and research are still required to establish this less invasive method in diagnostics.
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