You are here: MEDICA Portal. Magazine & More. MEDICA Magazine. Archive. Neurology.
Tinnitus Discovery Could Lead to New Ways to Stop the Ringing
Tinnitus resembles phantom limb
pain experienced by many
Their new findings suggest several new approaches to treatment, including retraining the brain, and new avenues for developing drugs to suppress the ringing. "Two million Americans are debilitated by tinnitus; they can't work, they can't sleep. Its life destroying and a substantial cause of suicide," said Professor Michael Merzenich, of UC San Francisco. "These experiments have led us to rethink how we attack the tinnitus by our training strategies."
According to Shaowen Bao, professor at UC Berkeley, tinnitus – pronounced TIN-it-tus or tin-NIGHT-us – is most commonly caused by hearing loss. Sustained loud noises, as from machinery or music, as well as some drugs can damage the hair cells in the inner ear that detect sounds. Because each hair cell is tuned to a different frequency, damaged or lost cells leave a gap in hearing, typically a specific frequency and anything higher in pitch.
Experiments in the past few years have shown that the ringing doesn't originate in the inner ear, though, but rather in regions of the brain – including the auditory cortex – that receives input from the ear.
Bao's experiments in rats with induced hearing loss explain why the neurons in the auditory cortex generate these phantom perceptions. They showed that neurons that have lost sensory input from the ear become more excitable and fire spontaneously, primarily because these nerves have "homeostatic" mechanisms to keep their overall firing rate constant no matter what.
One treatment strategy, then, is to retrain patients so that these brain cells get new input, which should reduce spontaneous firing. This can be done by enhancing the response to frequencies near the lost frequencies. Experiments over the past 30 years have shown that the brain is plastic enough to reorganize in this way when it loses sensory input. When a finger is amputated, for example, the region of the brain receiving input from that finger may start handling input from neighboring fingers.
Another treatment strategy, Bao said, is to find or develop drugs that inhibit the spontaneous firing of the idle neurons in the auditory cortex. Hearing loss causes changes at junctions between nerve cells, the so-called synapses, that both excite and inhibit firing. His experiments showed that tinnitus is correlated with lower levels of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), but not with changes in the excitatory neurotransmitters.
MEDICA.de; Source: University of California, Berkeley