Why Apple Allergens Survive Food Processing

Resistant allergens endure a lot
© Hemera

This is the first time that the effects of heat and the presence of sugars on apple allergens have been characterised at a molecular level. Corresponding author Dr Ana Sancho said: “In Mediterranean countries reactions to apple allergens can be as severe as to peanuts. We investigated how one important allergen stands up to processing”.

The team studied a lipid transfer protein (LTP) from apple peel called Mal d 3, which can cause severe symptoms including anaphylaxis. They heated it at different temperatures with and without the addition of sugar and analysed the effects on the protein structure. Colleagues in Amsterdam investigated the impact on histamine release in the blood of apple allergic patients. Histamine is one of the main chemicals unleashed when the immune system overproduces the antibody IgE, causing allergic symptoms.

“Our study showed how tough this protein really is”, said Sancho. “We demonstrated for the first time how Mal d 3 maintains its ability to cause allergic reactions, and the extent to which reactivity can be reduced by different processing methods”.

During heating the protein unfolded, but it refolded once cooled. Mild heat treatment did not alter the reactivity of the protein, but severe heat treatment (100°C) caused a 30-fold decrease in the allergenicity of Mal d 3. The presence of sugars - which results in the Maillard reaction - had a protective effect and less allergenicity was lost.

The Maillard reaction is one of the most common chemical reactions to occur during processing. “We found that the protein binds to glucose, demonstrating the importance of studying allergens in context”, said Dr Sancho. “Different food components will interact with allergens and have an impact on their stability. Some may mask an allergen so it cannot be detected, but will not actually affect its ability to cause a reaction.

MEDICA.de; Source: Institute of Food Research